Continuous adaptation of work environments with changing levels of automation in evolving production systems.
Despite high automation levels in factories today, humans remain central to manufacturing operations. In the past, and due to human flexibility, workers were expected to adapt to machine requirements. However, today's machines increasingly allow these roles to be reversed with automation systems becoming ever more adaptable to the capabilities of workers, and work organisation becomes more flexible in terms of time and place. Furthermore, higher levels of product customisation and variable requirements call for new adaptive human-centred automation approaches, complementing the cognitive and physical capabilities of humans by advanced sensing and the higher precision of machines.